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Activation of hepatic stellate cells

Hepatic Stellate Cells Alter Liver Immune Environment to Promote Cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer, accounting for up to 90 percent of cases, and is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide according to the World Health Organization’s 2014 World Cancer Report. Learn more about how activated hepatic stellate cells alter the liver microenvironment to promote the recurrence of cancer . . .

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Scientists at Work

HIV Integration and the Persistence of HIV Infection

Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), which can completely block viral replication, is now used to control HIV in millions of patients worldwide. However, during infection, a DNA copy of the HIV genome is inserted into the cells it infects, which persists as long as the host cell lives, and can initiate an active infection if therapy is discontinued. This makes curing HIV a daunting task. Read more . . .

From Expression to Action: the Answer is NO

Among the most aggressive breast cancers are those that lack the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-), and have a “basal-like” gene expression signature. It was demonstrated that these ER- cancers frequently overexpress inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) which induces a basal-like gene expression pattern and also associates with poor patient survival. It was hypothesized that NOS2 may play an important causal role in the progression of ER- cancers.  Read more . . .