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Chaperone HJURP drives the proper loading of protein CENP-A to the centromere of a chromosome. The effect of HJURP on CENP-A's structural dynamics are observed and explained using dual-resolution in silico simulations, while in vivo experiments demonstrate how CENP-A mutations influence its specific localization in human cells.
Histone proteins are essential for the organization, expression, and inheritance of genetic material for eukaryotic cells. A centromere-specific H3 histone variant, centromere protein A (CENP-A), shares about 50% amino acid sequence identity with H3. CENP-A is required for packaging the centromere and for the proper separation of chromosomes during mitosis. Despite their distinct biological functions, previously reported crystal structures of the CENP-A/H4 and H3/H4 dimers reveal a high degree of similarity. In this work, we characterize the structural dynamics of CENP-A/H4 and H3/H4 dimers based on a dual-resolution approach, using both microsecond-scale explicit-solvent all-atom and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our data show that the H4 histone is significantly more rigid compared with the H3 histone and its variant CENP-A, hence, serving as a reinforcing structural element within the histone core. We report that the CENP-A/H4 dimer is significantly more dynamic than its canonical counterpart H3/H4, and our results provide a physical explanation for this flexibility. Further, we observe that the centromere-specific chaperone Holliday Junction Recognition Protein (HJURP) stabilizes the CENP-A/H4 dimer by forming a specific electrostatic interaction network. Finally, replacing CENP-A S68 with E68 disrupts the binding interface between CENP-A and HJURP in all-atom MD simulation, and consistently, in vivo experiments demonstrate that replacing CENP-A S68 with E68 disrupts CENP-A’s localization to the centromere. Based on all our results, we propose that, during the CENP-A/H4 deposition process, the chaperone HJURP protects various substructures of the dimer, serving both as a folding and binding chaperone.
Promiscuous histone mis-assembly is actively prevented by chaperones. Zhao, Haiqing+; Winogradoff, David+; Bui, Minh; Dalal, Yamini*; and Papoian, Garegin*. J Am Chem Soc. 138(40): 13083-13446, 2016. +equal contribution; *corresponding authors. Note: Haiqing Zhao is a joint graduate student who was funded for 2 years by the NCI-University of Maryland Partnership for Integrative Cancer Research.