CCR investigators pioneered the use of the tuberculosis vaccine—Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)—in the treatment of bladder cancer. In cases where the tumor burden is not too high and direct contact can be made with the urothelium surface of the bladder, BCG application appears to elicit an immune response that attacks the tumor as well as the attenuated virus. Ongoing clinical trials focusing on enhancing the patient’s immune system are listed below.

  • randomized phase III trial studies how well pembrolizumab works in treating patients with bladder cancer that has spread from where it started to nearby tissue or lymph nodesView Protocol. 
  • A Phase I clinical trial to test a new drug combination for people with bladder cancer that has not spread to the muscle. View protocol.
  • A Phase II clinical trial is testing whether the addition of a new vaccine can improve the immune and clinical response to BCG in patients who have recurred with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer after previous treatment with BCG. View protocol.