Skip CCR Main Navigation National Cancer Institute National Cancer Institute U.S. National Institutes of Health
CCR - For Our Staff| Home |

Our Science – Garfield Website

Susan H. Garfield, M.S.

Portait Photo of Susan Garfield
Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis
Head, Confocal Microscopy Core Facility
Facility Head
Center for Cancer Research
National Cancer Institute
Building 37, Room B114
Bethesda, MD 20892
301- 435-6187
301- 496-0734


Ms. Garfield received her B.Sc. from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1973 and her M.Sc. from the University of Maryland in 1975. To aid investigators in the design and implementation of various confocal projects, Ms. Garfield has used her extensive experience and training in cell biology from her earlier positions at NIH. As a chemist in the laboratory of Dr. Roscoe Brady, Chief, Developmental and Metabolic Neurology Branch, NINDS, her research focused on the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism and the biochemistry of lysosomal storage diseases. Ms. Garfield established and maintained a Tissue Culture Facility for the Clinical Investigations and Therapeutics Section and was responsible for developing methods for the culture of human skin fibroblasts and amnion used in enzymatic assays for genetic screening. She was also involved in enzyme purification and modification of glucocerebrosidase for enzyme replacement therapy for patients suffering from Gaucher's disease. Under the supervision of Dr. Kevin Catt, Chief, Endocrinology Reproduction Research Branch, NICHD, Ms. Garfield conducted acute metabolic studies of peptide hormone action using radioligand-receptor analysis of peptide hormone receptors for LH/hCG, FSH, and prolactin in testis, ovary and adrenal. Ms. Garfield also modified protocols for two dimensional gel electrophoresis to study the phosphorylation of endogenous proteins in the leydig cell in response to gonadotropin. During her tenure several years ago as a chemist in the Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis, her research concentrated on the neoplastic transformation of rat liver epithelial cells by retroviral associated oncogenes. Ms. Garfield was able to successfully introduce various oncogenes into liver epithelial cells by infecting these cells with retroviral vectors and was able to establish both cell and tumor lines at a time when transfection of rat liver epithelial cells had proved unsuccessful. She also conducted studies on the regulated expression of the mdr gene in rat liver which was found to be partially responsible for the multidrug-resistance of carcinogen-initiated hepatocytes and regenerating liver cells. As Confocal Facility Manager, Ms. Garfield provides state-of-the-art histological and microscopic analyses to better understand critical biological structures and cellular processes involved in cancer.


The facility provides Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy using either a Zeiss LSM 510 UV system, a Zeiss LSM 510 NLO (2-photon) Meta system, a Zeiss 710 NLO (2-photon) system or the latest Zeiss LSM 780 system. Confocal software allows simultaneous or sequential three channel (24 bit) acquisition of 2D, 3D and 4D data. Five additional processing stations are available for post-acquisition analysis with specialized imaging software.
Imaging of both fixed specimens and live cells is provided. For live cell imaging, cells are placed in a temperature-controlled, perfusable enclosed chamber or an open chamber allowing acquisition over several minutes to several hours. Fluorescent Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP), Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), and co-localization studies can be conducted as well as imaging of UV excitable dyes. The IR laser of the 2-photon system facilitates imaging of thick specimens and minimizes tissue damage while the Meta detector provides multi-spectral imaging. Several software packages are available to users including Bitplane's Imaris for volume/surface rendering, tracking and measurements; Media Cybernetics' Image Pro Plus and 3D constructor; NIH's ImageJ and Adobe's Photoshop.

The core is supported by the Center for Cancer Research at no charge to individual users. Collaborations with outside laboratories are also considered, time permitting. Please refer to the publication list for examples of confocal imaging that have been done in this facility.

Investigators should contact Susan Garfield, Facility Manager, to discuss their project and facility procedures. If the project is appropriate, appointments will be made for using the confocal. More information on the core facility can be found at Consultations on experimental design with emphasis on proper controls for co-localization, FRET and FRAP analysis is provided along with suggestions for optimum fluorophore selection, sample preparation and fixation, and sample mounting and storage until image acquisition.

To learn more about the services of the Core Facility please contact Susan Garfield.

This page was last updated on 3/7/2014.