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Thomas A. Waldmann, M.D.

Portait Photo of Thomas Waldmann
Lymphoid Malignancies Branch
Head, Cytokine Immunology and Immunotherapy Section
Branch Chief
Center for Cancer Research
National Cancer Institute
Building 10, Room 4N115
Bethesda, MD 20892-1374


Dr. Waldmann received his M.D. from Harvard Medical School. He joined NCI in 1956 and has been chief of the Metabolism Branch since 1973. He studies the IL-2/IL-2 receptor system in growth of normal and neoplastic cells. He co-discovered IL-15 and introduced various forms of IL-2/IL-15R-directed therapy for leukemia and autoimmune diseases. He has initiated clinical trials employing this cytokine in the treatment of metastatic malignancy. His honors include the Ehrlich medal; the Stratton, Lila Gruber, Simon Shubitz, Milken, Artois-Baillet Latour, and Bristol-Myers Squibb prizes; AAI-Dana Foundation Award in Human Immunology Research; and election to the National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and Institute of Medicine, NAS.


The IL-2/IL-15 Receptor System in the Life and Death of Lymphocytes: A Target for Cancer Therapy and Vaccine Design

Our work on basic and clinical immunology focuses on the regulation of the human immune response and how its dysregulation can lead to autoimmune, immunodeficiency and malignant disorders. We apply insights gained in our fundamental research to the development of new approaches to the treatment of patients. A major area of our efforts focuses on the critical role played by the receptor for interleukin-2 (IL-2) on the growth, differentiation and regulation of normal and neoplastic T-cells. We defined the IL-2 receptor subunits IL-2R beta and IL-2R alpha using the first reported anti-cytokine monoclonal antibody (anti-Tac) that we developed. This was followed by molecular cloning and expression of this receptor. These studies have culminated in the definition of the IL-2R as an exceptionally valuable target for the therapy of leukemia and autoimmune diseases. The scientific basis for this approach was our demonstration that normal resting cells do not express IL-2R alpha whereas it is expressed by normal T-cells in patients with lymphoid malignancies. We introduced different forms of IL-2R-directed therapy, including unmodified antibodies to IL-2R alpha (anti-Tac, the first antibody to a cytokine receptor to receive FDA approval), humanized anti-Tac (daclizumab, Zenapax) and the antibody armed with toxins or alpha and beta-emitting radionuclides. We showed that humanized anti-Tac contributes to reducing renal transplant rejection. The FDA then approved daclizumab for use in humans to prevent acute kidney transplant rejection. In addition, we showed that humanized anti-Tac is of value in the treatment of such T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders as noninfectious uveitis and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that anti-Tac provides effective therapy for a subset of patients with a previously fatal leukemia, HTLV-I associated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL).

In a pivotal recent finding, Waldmann demonstrated that refractory and relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients could be effectively treated with daclizumab armed with Yttrium-90. This study's scientific basis was that most normal cells do not express CD25, whereas it is expressed by some Reed-Sternberg cells and by rosetting polyclonal T-cells in lymphomatous masses. Yttrium-90 provides strong beta emissions that kill tumor cells at a distance by crossfire. In 30 HL patients treated with 90Y-daclizumab, there were 7 partial and 12 complete responses. Responses were seen among the patients whose Reed-Sternberg cells were CD25 negative, provided that the associated rosetting T-cells expressed CD25. Thus, repeated 90Y-daclizumab infusions predominately directed toward non-malignant T cells rosetting around Reed-Sternberg cells provided effective therapy for most HL patients.

In a most critical development, Dr. Waldmann co-discovered the cytokine IL-15 and elucidated its role in the development of NK and CD8-memory T cells. He demonstrated that IL-15 binds to beta and gamma chains also present in IL-2 receptors. Despite this sharing of receptor components, Waldmann showed that IL-2 and IL-15 make distinct contributions to adaptive immune responses. IL-2, through its induction of regulatory T cells and activation-induced cell death (AICD), acts as an immunological checkpoint required for self tolerance. In contrast, IL-15 inhibits AICD and favors survival of CD8-memory cells and is thus dedicated to supporting persistence of an immune response. To circumvent the immunological checkpoints mediated by IL-2, Waldmann used IL-15 in lieu of IL-2 in treatment of malignancy in mice and found it effective. Waldmann has directed the cGMP production of IL-15 and is introducing IL-15 in therapy of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma and renal cell cancer. Furthermore, Waldmann demonstrated that vaccines containing IL-15 induced long-lasting, high-avidity CD8-mediated CTL immunity, whereas T-cell immunity mediated by IL-2 was short lived. Thus Waldmann's proposal to incorporate IL-15 into molecular vaccines may represent a major advance in the therapy of cancer and AIDS and in vaccine design.

Collectively, Waldmann's 50-year scientific odyssey has included many discoveries that have led to applications in the fields of organ transplantation, autoimmune disease and cancer. He has dominated the fields of IL-2 and IL-15, cytokines that control the immune response, and he has defined disorders in these cytokines underlying T-cell leukemogenesis. Thus, Waldmann is a pioneer and leader in producing the explosion of knowledge about cytokines and their receptors and in the coming of age of monoclonal antibodies, now a dominant form of cancer immunotherapy. He has had a lasting impact in the cancer field and has demonstrated a lifetime commitment to fighting cancer.

This page was last updated on 10/29/2013.