Dr. Hughes received his Ph.D. from Harvard University under the direction of Dr. Mario Capecchi and did postdoctoral research under the direction of Drs. J. Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus at the University of California-San Francisco. He was a senior staff investigator at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory until 1984, when he established the Gene Expression in Eukaryotes Section in the ABL-Basic Research Program at NCI-Frederick. Dr. Hughes became Deputy Director of the ABL-Basic Research Program in 1988 and Director of the Molecular Basis of Carcinogenesis Laboratory in 1995. In 1999, he joined the HIV Drug Resistance Program at the National Cancer Institute as Chief of the Retroviral Replication Laboratory. Dr. Hughes was appointed Director of the HIV Drug Resistance Program in 2006. He is a Co-organizer of the Annual Symposium on Antiviral Drug Resistance and has served as a Co-organizer of the Retroviruses and Viral Vectors Meetings at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and the Annual Meeting on Oncogenes. Dr. Hughes was named one of the most frequently cited AIDS researchers by Science Watch in 1996.