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DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 as a mediator of mutant p53-determined p16(ink4A) down-regulation
In cancer, gene silencing via hypermethylation is as common as genetic mutations in p53. Understanding the relationship between mutant p53 and hypermethylation of other tumor suppressor genes is essential when elucidate mechanisms of tumor development. In this study, two isogenic human B lymphoblast cell lines with different p53 status include TK6 containing wild-type p53 and WTK1 with mutant p53 were used and contrasted. Lower levels of p16(ink4A) protein were detected in WTK1 cells than in TK6 cells, which were accompanied by increased DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) gene expression as well as hypermethylation of the p16 ( ink4A ) promoter. siRNA experiments to transiently knock down wild-type p53 in TK6 cells resulted in increase of DNMT1 expression as well as decrease of p16(ink4A) protein. Conversely, siRNA knockdown of mutant p53 in WTK1 cells did not alter either DNMT1 or p16(ink4A) protein levels. Furthermore, loss of suppression function of mutant p53 to DNMT1 in WTK1 was caused by the attenuation of its binding ability to the DNMT1 promoter. In summary, we provide evidences to elucidate the relationship between mutant p53 and DNMT1. Our results indicate that mutant p53 loses its ability to suppress DNMT1 expression, and thus enhances methylation levels of the p16 ( ink4A ) promoter and subsequently down-regulates p16(ink4A )protein.

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme: A phase II study evaluating a prolonged high-dose of boronophenylalanine (BPA)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) using a novel protocol for the boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) infusion. PATIENT AND METHODS: This phase II study included 30 patients, 26-69 years old, with a good performance status of which 27 have undergone debulking surgery. BPA-F (900mg BPA/kg body weight) was given i.v. over 6h. Neutron irradiation started 2h after the completion of the infusion. Follow-up reports were monitored by an independent clinical research institute. RESULTS: The boron-blood concentration during irradiation was 15.2-33.7mug/g. The average weighted absorbed dose to normal brain was 3.2-6.1Gy (W). The minimum dose to the tumour volume ranged from 15.4 to 54.3Gy (W). Seven patients suffered from seizures, 8 from skin/mucous problem, 5 patients were stricken by thromboembolism and 4 from abdominal disturbances in close relation to BNCT. Four patients displayed 9 episodes of grade 3-4 events (WHO). At the time for follow-up, minimum ten months, 23 out of the 29 evaluable patients were dead. The median time from BNCT treatment to tumour progression was 5.8 months and the median survival time after BNCT was 14.2 months. Following progression, 13 patients were given temozolomide, two patients were re-irradiated, and two were re-operated. Patients treated with temozolomide lived considerably longer (17.7 vs. 11.6 months). The quality of life analysis demonstrated a progressive deterioration after BNCT. CONCLUSION: Although, the efficacy of BNCT in the present protocol seems to be comparable with conventional radiotherapy and the treatment time is shorter, the observed side effects and the requirement of complex infrastructure and higher resources emphasize the need of further phase I and II studies, especially directed to improve the accumulation of (10)B in tumour cells.

A novel bifunctional maleimido CHX-A'' chelator for conjugation to thiol-containing biomolecules
A novel bifunctional maleimido CHX-A'' DTPA chelator 5 was developed and conjugated to the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) and subsequently radiolabeled with (111)In. The resulting (111)In labeled immunoconjugate 2 was demonstrated to bind to SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells comparably to an isothiocyanato CHX-A'' DTPA modified native trastuzumab, 1. Through efficient thiol-maleimide chemistry, antibodies, peptides or other targeting vectors can now be modified with an established radioactive metal chelating agent CHX-A'' DTPA for imaging and/or therapies of cancer.

This page was last updated on 4/1/2008.